With the advancement of space research, more time and money has recently been invested in technologies that enable efficient use of space resources. In all of these endeavors, the focus has been on finding the best way to produce Oxygen on the Moon. For the past several years, research has been under way on how human habitation on the moon can be sustained.
Now the surface of the moon has been found to have enough oxygen, which could keep 8 billion people alive for a million years. Studies are now focused on how to make this oxygen breathable for humans in such a situation.
In October, the Australian Space Agency and NASA signed an agreement to send an Australian-built rover to the moon under the Artemis program, aimed at collecting lunar rocks that could provide breathable oxygen to the moon.
The lunar atmosphere is very thin and consists mainly of hydrogen, neon and argon gases. It does not contain the oxygen required for humans and mammals.
There is actually a lot of oxygen on the moon. Not only is it in the form of gas, but it is also in the rock layer that covers the moon and in the fine dust called regolith. If we could extract oxygen from such a layer, would that be enough to sustain human life on the moon? Research on this was ongoing.
The lunar regolith is made up of about 45 percent oxygen. Each cubic meter of lunar regolith contains an average of 1.4 tons of minerals with about 630 kilograms of oxygen. NASA estimates that humans need about 800 grams of oxygen per day to survive.
So 630 kg of oxygen will keep a person alive for about two years (or more). The top ten meters above the lunar surface will provide enough oxygen for all the eight billion people on Earth to breathe for about 100,000 years. But it will also depend on how effectively we extract and use oxygen.